AskDefine | Define clepe

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

From the verb cleopian.

Pronunciation

  • /kli:p/

Verb

  1. To call, name.

Quotations

  • 1385: Geoffery Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde Book 5, lines 760-745,
    For that that som men blamen ever yit,
    Lo, other maner folk commenden it.
    And as for me, for al swich variaunce,
    Felicitee clepe I my suffisaunce.
  • c. 1388: Geoffrey Chaucer, The Legend of Good Women, "The Legend of Dido", lines 943-945
    And on his bakke he bar and with him ledde
    His olde fader, cleped Anchises,
    And by the weye his wyf Creusa he lees.
  • 1380s: Hebrews 3:1-2 of the Bible (John Wycliffe version)
    Therfor, hooli britheren, and parceneris of heuenli cleping, biholde ye the apostle and the bischop of oure confessioun, Jhesu, which is trewe to hym that made hym, as also Moises in al the hous of hym. — Hebrews 3:1-2 John Wycliffe version.
  • 1593: Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis
    She clepes him king of graves, and grave for kings,
    Imperious supreme of all mortal things.
  • 1606: Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act 3 Scene 1
    As hounds, and greyhounds, mongrels, spaniels, curs,
    Shoughs, water-rugs, and demi-wolves are clept
    All by the name of dogs.
  • 1900: A. W. Pollard, ed, The Travels of Sir John Mandeville: The Version of the Cotton Manuscript in Modern Spelling
    And there is a great hill, that men clepe Olympus, that departeth Macedonia and Thrace.
    [...]
    For men sell a gum, that men clepe turpentine, instead of balm, and they put thereto a little balm for to give good odour.
  • 1922: James Joyce, Ulysses
    And there came against the place as they stood a young learning knight yclept Dixon.
  • 2001: Glen David Gold, Carter Beats the Devil
    World traveling sorcerer supreme Charles Carter, yclept Carter the Mysterious, has made a startling discovery that makes the news from Europe seem mild indeed.''

Usage notes

The verb is obsolete, except for the past participle yclept which is sometimes used as a deliberate archaism.

Extensive Definition

A name (etymology: from OE nama; akin to OHG namo, Latin nomen, and Greek όνομα (onoma), ultimately from PIE: *nomn- ) is a label for a human or animal, thing, place, product (as in a brand name) and even an idea or concept, normally used to distinguish one from another. Names can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context. A personal name identifies a specific unique and identifiable individual person. The name of a specific entity is sometimes called a proper name (although that term has a philosophical meaning also) and is a proper noun. Other nouns are sometimes, more loosely, called names; an older term for them, now obsolete, is "general name".
The use of personal names is not unique to humans. Dolphins also use symbolic names, as has been shown by recent research. Individual dolphins have individual whistles, to which they will respond even when there is no other information to clarify which dolphin is being referred to.
Naming is the process of assigning a particular word or phrase to a particular object or property. This can be quite deliberate or a natural process that occurs in the flow of life as some phenomenon comes to the attention of the users of a language. Many new words or phrases come into existence during translation as attempts are made to express concepts from one language in another.
Either as a part of the naming process, or later as usage is observed and studied by lexicographers, the word can be defined by a description of the pattern to which it refers.
Besides their grammatical function, names can have additional or pure honorary and memorial values. For example, the posthumous name's primary function is commemorative.
Care must be taken in translation, for there are ways that one language may prefer one type of name over another. For example, there are "merchants' and sailors' terms" for their own convenience: the spellings Leghorn, Genoa, and Rome do not appear on Italian maps. Also, a feudal naming habit is used sometimes in other languages: the French often refer to Aristotle as "le Stagirite" from one spelling of his place of birth. Finally, claims to preference or authority can be refuted: the British did not refer to Louis-Napoleon as Napoleon III during his rule.

Philosophical accounts of names

Romeo and Juliet

In the play Romeo and Juliet, Juliet famously says: 'Tis but thy name that is my enemy; Thou art thyself, though not a Montague. What's Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot, Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part Belonging to a man. O, be some other name! What's in a name? that which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet; It has been argued that Shakespeare reveals the boundaries of the term name by proposing that a rose would smell sweet regardless of what we call it; therefore suggesting that a name attached to a person should not change them.

Frege

Proper names function the same way as common nouns do in many natural languages. Philosophers have thus often treated the two as similar in meaning. In the late nineteenth century, Frege argued that certain puzzling features of both names and nouns could be resolved if two aspects of the meanings of names and nouns could be recognized, sense and reference:
  • A sense, which is equivalent to some sort of description (a dog is a 'domestic canine animal')
  • A referent, the thing or things that meet that description (all dogs in the world)
Proper names are in this sense, special cases of nouns with only one referent, the person themselves.

Russell

Bertrand Russell believed that true names must never be equivalent to a description, but conceded that most of the apparent "names" in English really were equivalent to descriptions, specifically to definite descriptions. In this position, there are two different functions nouns can serve:
  • Describing (and perhaps indirectly referring)
  • Referring (directly, without description)
Russell's position is that that most or all English names really do the former. This position came to be known as Descriptivism with respect to singular terms, and was prominent through much of twentieth-century analytic philosophy.

Kripke

In 1970 Saul Kripke gave a series of lectures arguing against Descriptivism, and holding, among other things, that names are rigid designators, expressions that refer to objects independently of any properties those objects have. However, often descriptions are used to pick out references, to explain to others which objects are being discussed by reference to an agreed-upon property. According to this theory, it does not follow that any of the agreed-upon properties constitute the meaning of the name.
Kripke's work led to the development of various versions of the Causal theory of reference, which in various forms claims that our words mean what they do, not because of associated descriptions, but because of the causal history of the acquisition of that name in a vocabulary.

In mythology

In multiple world mythologies and folklore, knowing the name of a thing is considered to have power over a thing (to varying degrees).
In Arthurian mythology, part of the code of honor and chivalry practiced by knights is that a knight who loses a duel must reveal his name to the victor. It is considered a breach of honor or decorum to reveal one's name before combat. A frequent topos is that a defeated knight will, after revealing his name, ask the victor what his name is: if the victor turns out to actually be a much more strong and famous knight (i.e. one of Arthur's knights) the loser actually saves face, because he was beaten by a knight obviously held to already be stronger than him, and thus there is no shame in defeat. However, if a strong and powerful knight is defeated, and the victor turns out to be a relatively unknown and not particularly strong knight, it is a grave humiliation. As a result of this pattern, it is considered extremely odd within the rules of Arthurian society when a knight refuses to take off his helmet or reveal his identity, even after he has won a duel. Sometimes this results from the victorious knight simply not knowing his own name, as was the case with Lancelot and Percival during their early careers; this inability to reveal their own name even in victory led many to incorrectly assume they were trying to intentionally insult the vanquished. A major exception to this rule is Sir Gawain: Gawain considers himself to be the greatest of his uncle Arthur's knights, and he feels that his honor is so great that he does not need to hide from revealing it. Thus at the opening of any duel Gawain will simply openly announce "I am Gawain", as it will not diminish his honor to reveal it.

In religious thought

see Names of God
In the ancient world, particularly in the ancient near-east (Israel / Palestine, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia) names were thought to be extremely powerful and to act, in some ways, as a separate manifestation of a person or deity. This viewpoint is responsible both for the reluctance to use the proper name of God in Hebrew writing or speech, as well as the common understanding in ancient magic that magical rituals had to be carried out "in [someone's] name". By invoking a god or spirit by name, one was thought to be able to summon that spirit's power for some kind of miracle or magic (see Luke 9:49, in which the disciples claim to have seen a man driving out demons using the name of Jesus.) This understanding passed into later religious tradition, for example the stipulation in Catholic exorcism that the demon cannot be expelled until the exorcist has forced it to give up its name, at which point the name may be used in a stern command which will drive the demon away.

Judaism

Names are attributed added significance in traditional Jewish sources. In the Jewish religion most children receive their names from relatives who have passed away.

Biblical names

In the Old Testament, the names of individuals are meaningful; for example, Adam is named after the "earth" (Adam) from which he was created. (Genesis 2)
A change of name indicates a change of status. For example, the patriarch "Abram" is renamed "Abraham" before he is blessed with children. His wife, "Sarai" is similarly renamed "Sarah." (Genesis 17)
Throughout the Bible, characters are given names at birth that reflect something of significance or describe the course of their lives. For example: Solomon meant peace, and the king with that name was the first whose reign was without warfare. Likewise, Joseph named his firstborn son Manasseh (Hebrew: "causing to forget") as a gesture of forgiveness to his brothers for selling him into slavery.
Hebrews did not have a surname which was passed from generation to generation. However, they were typically known as the child of their father. For example: David, son of Jesse. In a sense, they used their fathers' first names as their own last names, a practice done by most Muslims today.

Talmudic attitudes

The Babylonian Talmud maintains that names exert a mystical influence over their bearers, and a change of name is one of four actions that can avert an evil heavenly decree, that would lead to punishment after one's death. Rabbinical commentators differ as to whether the name's influence is metaphysical, connecting a person to their soul, or bio-socio-psychological, where the connection affects his personality, appearance and social capacities. The Talmud also states that all those who descend to Gehenna will rise in the time of Messiah. However, there are three exceptions, one of which is he who calls another by a derisive nickname.

Technical names for names

Naming convention

For Wikipedia's own naming conventions see Wikipedia:Naming conventions
A naming convention is an attempt to systematize names in a field so they unambiguously convey similar information in a similar manner.
Naming conventions are useful in many aspects of everyday life, enabling the casual user to understand larger structures.
Street names within a city may follow a naming convention; some examples include:
  • In Manhattan, roads that go across the island (East-West) are called "Streets", while those that run the length of the island (North-South) are called "Avenues". Manhattan streets and avenues are numbered, with "1st Street" being near the southern end of the island, and "219th Street" being near the northern end, while "1st Avenue" is near the eastern edge of the island and "12th Avenue" near the western edge.
  • In Ontario, numbered concession roads are East-West whereas "lines" are North-South routes.
  • In San Francisco at least three series of parallel streets are alphabetically named, e.g. Irving, Judah, Kirkham, Lawton, Moraga, Noriega, Ortega, Pacheco, Quintara, Rivera, Santiago, Taraval, Ulloa, Vicente, Wawona.
  • The same tendency is seen in central Boston, Massachusetts, where Arlington Street is followed by roads to the west running parallel to it and named Berkeley, Clarendon, Dartmouth, Exeter, Fairfield, Gloucester, and Hereford.
  • In Brampton, Ontario, different sections of town all have streets starting with the same letter and the alphabetical order reflects chronology.
  • In Phoenix, Arizona, roads east of Central Avenue are termed streets while those west are Avenues.
Large corporate, university, or government campuses may follow a naming convention for rooms within the buildings to help orient tenants and visitors.
Parents may follow a naming convention when selecting names for their children. Some have chosen alphabetical names by birth order. In some East Asian cultures, it is common for one syllable in a two syllable given name to be a generation name which is the same for immediate siblings. In many cultures it is common for the son to be named after the father. In other cultures, the name may include the place of residence. Roman naming convention denotes social rank.
Products may follow a naming convention. Automobiles typically have a binomial name, a "make" (manufacturer) and a "model", in addition to a model year, such as a 2007 Chevrolet Corvette. Sometimes there is a name for the car's "decoration level" or "trim line" as well: e.g., Cadillac Escalade EXT Platinum, after the precious metal. Computers often have increasing numbers in their names to signify the next generation.
Courses at schools typically follow a naming convention: an abbreviation for the subject area and then a number ordered by increasing level of difficulty.
Many numbers (e.g. bank accounts, government IDs, credit cards, etc) are not random but have an internal structure and convention. Virtually all organizations that assign names or numbers will follow some convention in generating these identifiers. Airline flight numbers, Space shuttle flight numbers, even phone numbers all have an internal convention.

Brand names

The process of developing a name for a brand or product is heavily influenced by marketing research and strategy to be appealing and marketable. The brand name is often a neologism or pseudoword.

See also

References

clepe in Aymara: Suti
clepe in Bosnian: Ime
clepe in German: Name
clepe in Modern Greek (1453-): Όνομα
clepe in Spanish: Nombre
clepe in Esperanto: Nomo
clepe in Croatian: Ime
clepe in Indonesian: Nama
clepe in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Nomine
clepe in Icelandic: Nafn
clepe in Lojban: cmevla
clepe in Korean: 이름
clepe in Macedonian: Име
clepe in Dutch: Naam
clepe in Japanese: 名前
clepe in Norwegian Nynorsk: Namn
clepe in Narom: Noum
clepe in Portuguese: Nome
clepe in Quechua: Suti
clepe in Russian: Имя
clepe in Albanian: Emri
clepe in Simple English: Name
clepe in Slovenian: Ime
clepe in Finnish: Nimi
clepe in Swedish: Namn
clepe in Thai: ชื่อ
clepe in Ukrainian: Ім'я
clepe in Yiddish: נאמען
clepe in Chinese: 名称
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